Organizational analysis deals with identifying


You may be planning to expand your business by working with distributors instead of selling to customers directly. Your sales force will require new skills in selecting, training and managing distributors. Your organizational needs analysis must also take account of the external business environment. If changes in the regulatory environment affect your company, check that you can comply. If, for example, you have to comply with an industry quality standard to continue supplying an important customer, review the published documentation to identify the steps you need to take to gain accreditation.

To succeed in the marketplace, your company must outperform competitors. Comparing your skills and resources with those of your competitors is an important part of your needs analysis. This information helps you to create a benchmark that you can use to evaluate your skills and resources and identify gaps where you feel competitors have an advantage. Employees who deal with customers can highlight problems such as delays in order processing that are impacting customer satisfaction levels. Employees working on the production line will be aware of problems that affect quality or delivery times, giving you an insight into issues that you need to resolve to improve your competitiveness.

This new [Company A—Company B] makes me proud and makes me enthusiastically work for it. We also looked for factors that could potentially influence the relationship between occupational identification and willingness to cooperate in the integration process. A first category that emerged from our analysis was the presence of identity markers. As hypothesized, wearing an organizational uniform that remains the same after the merger confers a sense of continuity and helps employees creating a fit between their occupational identities and new work roles.

It makes you feel being part of your own world. It leads us to treat them [Company B members] as colleagues.


It has exposure to the outside world. I have the feeling that other people are looking up to us. But it turns out that this is a gigantic decision.

No new uniform for us. The interview statements also led us to believe that there are other important identity markers that carry out the same role as an organizational uniform does. You have to understand it. It is a matter of speaking the same language. I have better personal contact with someone doing the same job as I do. This seems to be an important factor in understanding the relation between occupational identification and willingness to cooperate. If the merger leads to a decline in the professional level of work, a threat, or a severe increase in workload, then in particular organization members with high levels of occupational identification appear to be less willing to cooperate in the integration process.

A business development manager explained,. The state of the art is far better compared to the systems of [Company B]. Yet, we still opt for their systems. This will have serious consequences. It means that we have to take a step back and people get peevish by it. In my daily work I have to make sure that we work towards a common goal.

I will get a lot of experience and knowledge from this merger. What is definitely true is that we get more freedom in this new situation. Herewith we also get more responsibility in our work. If you can cope with this in a correct way, it can lead to many positive things. In general, our qualitative data confirm the results from our statistical analysis.

A corporate staff manager in the second phase of integration noted,. The feeling changed compared to a year ago. The integration gets more intense and you start fighting about issues. It affects me. On one hand, employees mostly professional workers expressed a skeptical, and sometimes cynical, view on the future about how the merger would influence their daily jobs. This, in turn, led to feelings of uncertainty, identity threat, and eventually less willingness to cooperate in the integration process. A technical engineer explained this process as follows:.

What will happen to the group? What will we experience? You hear about this job guarantee of five years. But what will happen after these five years? Will it be like, [Company B] does the fancy stuff and we have to look for some other work? You never know what to expect. On the other hand, those employees who see the future in a more positive light felt their professional and organizational identity being less threatened and were more willing to cooperate.

Another group of employees expressed more nostalgic feelings and longed back to the past and the pre-merger identity of their company. In some cases, it was difficult for people to transfer their identity to the new post-merger organization. Employees in this group also linked their nostalgic feelings to decreasing autonomy in their jobs. Now you have to take into account the view of the other organization. It certainly has an impact.

This positive influence is stronger for uniformed personnel, and tends to become weaker later in the integration process. We believe our study makes a number of theoretical contributions and has implications for further research. Building on previous studies emphasizing the importance of various types of identification e. In fact, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of occupational identification have not yet been studied in a merger context. However, in some changes, such as the symbiotic merger that we studied, organizational requirements and professional commitments may actually become more aligned.

This is an important contribution because it challenges classical assumptions about the effects of change on identifications and their consequences. The early presumption of unavoidable conflicts between occupational and organizational identification has given way to more nuanced theory based on recent studies across a range of occupations that typically find moderately strong positive associations between occupational and organizational identification Hassan, Our findings also demonstrate that there are important moderators influencing the relationship between occupational identification and willingness to cooperate in the integration process.

For the effects of occupational identification, the use of identity markers is important. We focused on one extreme form of identity markers, that is, organizational uniforms. Uniforms provide employees with a salient means of expressing their social distinctiveness and social status categorizations Elsbach, In our study, these dress markers apparently helped employees to create a bridge between their occupational identities and new work roles. As a result, members of both organizations were better able to signal their occupational identities, which resulted in increased confidence and psychological comfort in relation to the change brought about by the merger.

Future studies might further explore the conditions under which organizational uniforms as well as other identity markers help or hinder integration after a merger. The critical influence of language on post-merger integration processes has received some attention e. Regarding the effects of uniforms, it would be interesting to study the effect of a forced change in organizational uniform i.

Our study also points to the importance of the time dimension. This result can likely be attributed to a careful task integration process and a focus on realizing synergies during the course of the integration Birkinshaw et al. Insufficient managerial attention is a key cause of post-merger integration failure Melkonian et al. Our findings stimulate managers to include in their focus an aspect that has so far received little consideration: the identification of employees with their occupation.

For managers and human resources HR practitioners, this means that a differentiated approach may be necessary when the organization is involved in a large-scale change process. More specifically, in organizations in which both uniformed and non-uniformed employees are employed, management needs to be aware of the differential effects of identification with the occupation and organization for these groups.

Our findings confirm the importance of organizational uniforms as identity markers, but this also means that changing the familiar organizational uniform after a merger is likely to make integration more difficult. An important limitation of this study is its repeated cross-sectional design.

Although we collected data at different points in time, our analysis could not follow changes over time in individual employee perceptions. Any causal interpretation of the results, therefore, is speculative. In future studies, use of longitudinal research designs would allow us to more closely examine how the relationship between identification targets and employee attitudes and behaviors changes over time. Another limitation concerns the nature of the data, as we collected the independent and dependent variables using the same instrument.

However, we undertook several remedies against common method bias.


In addition, our support for Hypotheses 2 and 4 is unlikely to be an artifact of single-respondent bias, because it is implausible that respondents will theorize such a moderated relationship when filling out the questionnaire. Furthermore, most of our conclusions are based on interactions with an objective measure i. Although the effects that we found in our study have a statistically small impact, we believe that these findings are nevertheless important.

First, there are methodological reasons for the small effects we found; such effects are usually smaller in field studies e. There are also statistical reasons for the small effects of our interaction terms; measurement error in the independent variable and the moderator is compounded when both variables are multiplied to obtain the interaction term.

Second, our qualitative interview data supported and enriched our quantitative methods. Third, on a more theoretical basis, our empirical setting i. A final limitation of this study is related to the generalizability of the findings. Our data were collected in one particular merger, where top management chose to pursue a symbiotic post-merger integration approach.

In symbiotic post-merger integration, the temporary preservation of the pre-merger organizations is likely to contribute to perceptions of persisting alignment of professional and organizational goals, making it more likely to find support for some of our hypotheses. Hence, the generalizability of the findings of our study may be restricted to cooperative organizational change processes such as those encountered in a symbiotic post-merger integration process.

We encourage future research to replicate or contradict the findings of this study in other organizational change contexts, in which more radical organizational discontinuities occur. Our qualitative research suggests that some of the factors we studied are more complex than reflected in our quantitative study. This pertains in particular to identity markers, which go beyond organizational uniforms, and also include corporate colors, language, and probably much more.

It also pertains to the time dimension. Although we have focused on the effects of objective time, employees also differ in their perceptions of past and future, and it seems worthwhile to explore the effects of this in relation to identification in a post-merger context. Taken together, these future research directions will hopefully enrich our understanding of multiple identification processes in times of organizational change.

David P. He received his PhD from Tilburg University. He has published in international research journals like the Academy of Management Journal and Management International Review.

Needs Assessment Process

Niels G. His research interests focus on international business collaboration and interorganizational projects. Our definition reflects the degree to which any worker i. Legally, it was a friendly acquisition of the smaller company by the larger company.

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The distribution of respondents across the different rounds of data collection is as follows: Wave 1: , Wave 2: 1,, Wave 3: 1,; Wave 4: 1,, and Wave 5: 1, The reverse-coded item measuring willingness to cooperate had a factor loading of. However, as more fully explained in the body of the article, our qualitative analysis made us decide to retain this item. We also ran the regression analyses with and without this item but the effects hold in both scenarios.

Changing this threshold does not lead to any significant change in the outcomes of further analyses.

What is Task Analysis?

A listwise deletion method provides us with the same results. Therefore, we will only report estimates based on the Expectation Maximization EM algorithm. The color blue is seen as symbolic for what Company A stands for. Associate Editor: Orlando Richard. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Group Organ Manag. Published online Sep 3. Kroon 1 and Niels G.

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  • Noorderhaven 2, 3. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Email: ln. Abstract Integration processes after mergers are fraught with difficulties, and constitute a main cause of merger failure. Keywords: occupational identification, post-merger integration, willingness to cooperate, organizational identification. Theoretical Background Occupational Identification In social identity research, there is increasing awareness of the importance of taking multiple identification targets into account Ramarajan, We, therefore, posit the following hypothesis: Hypothesis 4: Organizational uniform moderates the relationship between occupational identification and willingness to cooperate in the integration process, such that the relationship is more positive for uniformed employees who continue to wear their familiar uniforms.

    Method Below, we describe how we test our hypotheses using data from a large-scale study of two merged service organizations. Research Setting Our study was conducted at two merged firms from different European countries. Quantitative Part The unit of analysis in our study is the individual organization member. Variables The questionnaire contained several concepts that are relevant for the present context. Analysis We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis by using structural equation modeling with AMOS 21 to check for convergent and discriminant validity.

    Qualitative Part To obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the role of occupational identification in a post-merger context, we enriched the questionnaire data with qualitative interviews. Analysis Our qualitative data analysis proceeded in stages in which we executed different coding and analytical practices. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Results of Quantitative Part Means, standard deviations, and construct correlations are presented in Table 1.

    Table 1. Table 2. Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Intercept 4. Figure 2. Figure 3. Results of Qualitative Part As we went through the interview transcripts, we first focused on generating categories of targets for identification in a post-merger integration context. Our interview data demonstrate the importance and synergetic nature of, in particular, occupational and post-merger organizational identification: Do I feel more connected to my occupation or my organization?

    Technical engineer As our interview data further illustrate, organization members differed in the extent to which they were willing to cooperate as an interim outcome in the integration process. A corporate staff manager in the second phase of integration noted, The feeling changed compared to a year ago. Implications for Practice Insufficient managerial attention is a key cause of post-merger integration failure Melkonian et al. Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research An important limitation of this study is its repeated cross-sectional design.

    Author Biographies David P. When someone criticizes my occupation, it feels like a personal insult. I am very interested in what others think about my occupation. When someone praises my occupation, it feels like a personal compliment. When someone criticizes Company A—Company B , it feels like a personal insult. I am very interested in what other think about Company A—Company B. When someone praises Company A—Company B , it feels like a personal compliment.

    Company A—Company B successes are my successes. Notes 1. References Adedoyin A. Faculty experiences of merger and organizational change in a social work program. Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work , 13 , Aguinis H. Effect size and power in assessing moderating effects of categorical variables using multiple regression: A year review. Journal of Applied Psychology , 90 , Aiken L. Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Albert S. Organizational identity. In Cummings L. Angwin D.

    New integration strategies for post-acquisition management. Long Range Planning , 48 , Aranya N. An examination of professional commitment in public accounting. Accounting, Organizations and Society , 6 , Ashforth B. Identification in organizations: An examination of four fundamental questions.

    Journal of Management , 34 , Which hat to wear? The relative salience of multiple identities in organizational contexts. In Hogg M. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press. Extending the expanded model of organizational identification to occupations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology , 43 , Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review , 14 , Bamber E.

    Bartels J. British Journal of Management , 17 , SS Bartunek J. Considering planned change anew: Stretching large group interventions strategically, emotionally, and meaningfully. Academy of Management Annals , 5 , Bauer F. Strategic Management Journal , 35 , Bernaards C. Influence of imputation and EM methods on factor analysis when item nonresponse in questionnaire data is nonignorable. Multivariate Behavioral Research , 35 , Birkinshaw J. Managing the post-acquisition integration process: How the human integration and task integration processes interact to foster value creation.

    Journal of Management Studies , 37 , Brannen M. Merging without alienating: Interventions promoting cross-cultural organizational integration and their limitations. Journal of International Business Studies , 40 , Charmaz K. Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative research. London, England: Sage.

    Chreim S. Social and temporal influences on interpretations of organizational identity and acquisition integration: A narrative study. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science , 43 , Colman H. The relationship between collaborating organizations is important to consider. Alignment of collaborating organizations' cultures is a significant and often overlooked element of contracting-out.

    Alignment of the values, mission, communication style, and outcome measurements increase the likelihood of a successful collaboration. Organizational analysis can analyze a single organization and its internal functioning as well as a coalition of actors in collaboration for a certain goal.

    Such collaboration can be analyzed for inter-actor cooperation, information sharing and capacity. A good example is "Organizational analysis of maternal mortality reduction program in Madagascar" by Harimanana, Barennes and Reinharz. Their results show several problems. Incongruity among actors disperses the services and therefore makes it difficult for women to access support.

    Cultural inconsistencies and failure to recognize social context, diminishes the cooperation and effectiveness of the actors. Also, the Madagascar health ministry needs basic materials and funding to provide adequate services to women. Additionally, Cumbersome directives created inefficiencies.

    The Analysis of the information indicated that the Madagascar Ministry of Health is a poor leader of this effort, the programs did not translate well on the local level and the different actors did not cooperate well. This study demonstrates a complex organizational analysis. The multiple aspects of the misalignment hampered information flows.

    Materials and References for an Organizational Needs Analysis

    In addition, inter-actor misunderstanding increased the inefficiencies of the program. This analysis could help the functioning of the program in the future. In the early s, the Washington D. Mayor Adrian Fenty sought advice to determine what was the best way to effectively improve the Washington D.

    Fenty employed Michelle Rhee as the school district superintendent. Rhee initiated her job by analyzing all the factors that affected the school district. After evaluating all the factors Rhee decided to restructure the district. Rhee set defined metrics in order to hold teachers accountable and measure whether they were reaching goals.

    Rhee wanted to eliminate tenure for teachers in order to increase teacher accountability. Rhee wanted to increase the school district's efficiency, and believed that restructuring the teachers would achieve this. The process and results were controversial but illustrate an organizational approach to overcoming a policy crisis. In , a group of women formed a shelter in St.

    Paul, Minnesota to address the needs of Latina women in the community that were victims of domestic violence. Casa de Esperanza immediately reached capacity, but the majority of occupants were Caucasian and African-American women. The Board of Directors was surprised to realize that very few women from the Latina community were utilizing the shelter. Casa de Esperanza continued to serve women from all backgrounds, and received government stipends for their work.

    The organization strove to be multicultural, while also maintaining the same mission of empowering Latinas. Many of the staff members identified with the mission of helping all women, while the Board of Directors maintained their stance on specifically helping Latinas. The theoretical model of the, "strategic triangle," can be applied in order to better understand the organizational challenges of Casa de Esperanza. The mission of the organization is vague and overly broad, which led the staff and Board to develop opposing views of the mission.

    Most importantly, they could not agree on who their target demographic was. The environment suggests that there is a need amongst a broader population than just Latina women. In addition, the government is the main source of funding for the organization and they are failing at financial sustainability.

    In order to bring these three components into alignment, the organization would need to make a clear and specific mission statement, tailor their capacity to reach that mission, and look for alternate forms of funding. Other recommendations could be made using the strategic triangle model. The model is a useful tool to examine the organizations in a crisis situation. There was a steep decline in ridership coupled with an increase in riders who avoided paying the fare.

    Kiepper believed that New Yorkers would regain trust in the Transit Authority if they saw crime decline and repercussions for fare avoidance.

    Skills Profile

    Therefore, Kiepper used the organizational structure model to improve the organization's efficiency. Stations were given station managers who were responsible for overseeing all problems within the station. The previous division of labor was broken down, and employees began to work across departments in order to improve the stations. This is an example of focusing on an organization's structure while performing an organizational analysis. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. In Search of Excellence.

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